War of Independence
During the American war of independence the 13 North American colonies opposed the British colonial power. Eventually the colonies gained independence from Britain and laid the basis for the foundation of the USA in the Declaration of IndependenceThe Declaration of Independence (1776) announced that the thirteen American colonies, then at war with Great Britain, regarded themselves as thirteen newly independent sovereign states, and no longer a part of the British Empire in 1776.
Stamp Act & Townshend acts
Until the Seven Year’s War France and Great Britain competed for the dominance in North America. When the French retreated the British took over, forbidding settlements in Western America and burdening the American citizens with tax strains. Due to financial difficulties the colonies were supposed to pay taxes in order to fill the British treasury as regulated in the Stamp ActThe Stamp Act 1765 was an act of the Parliament of Great Britain that imposed a direct tax on the colonies of British America for printed materials in the colonies be produced on stamped paper produced in London. The Americans however protested against the tax yield and, in consequence, it had to be abolished in 1766. Furthermore the British Parliament imposed custom duties on various goods exported to the colony in the Townshend ActsThe purpose of the Townshend Acts was to raise revenue in the colonies to pay the salaries of governors and judges so that they would remain loyal to Great Britain. This resolution was equally controversial and was revoked shortly afterwards. The custom duties on tea were however still prevailing due to the Tea ActThe Tea Act 1773 was to undercut the price of tea smuggled into Britain's North American colonies, leading to the uprising of the Boston Tea PartyThe Boston Tea Party (1773) was a political protest by the Sons of Liberty in Boston. It was the culmination of a resistance movement throughout British America against the Tea Act in 1773.
1st &2nd Continental Congress
In September 1774 leading representatives of the 13 colonies met on the Continental CongressThe Continental Congress was a convention of delegates called together from the Thirteen Colonies. The Congress met from 1774 to 1789 in Philadelphia, revolting against the restrictions imposed by the British colonial power. In the Declaration of Rights a petition directed at King George IIIGeorge III was King of Great Britain and King of Ireland from 25 October 1760 until the union of these two countries on 1 January 1801 was drafted, appealing to the right of freedom. The famous slogan of the independence movement was: „no taxation without representation“. Furthermore they triggered the boycott of British goods.
During the convention of the Second Continental Congress that had commenced in 1775 an armed conflict between the settlers and the British army broke out. Apart from the implementation of a Continental Army and a new currency the American Declaration of Independence was passed on the 4th of July in 1776 and George WashingtonGeorge Washington was the Commander-in-Chief of the Continental Army during the American Revolutionary War, and one of the Founding Fathers of the United States became the head of the newly founded congress.
Peace Treaty of Paris
The first encounter of the British army and the American settlers took place in April 1775, in which the British aimed to isolate the New England states from the other colonies in order to swiftly and strategically vanquish the resistance fighters. The Americans managed to force the British troops into capitulation in the battle of Yorktown 1781, even though their supply situation was rather critical. It was the support of the anti-British coalition formed by France, Spain and the Netherlands that brought about the American victory.
Even before the Peace Treaty of ParisThe Treaty of Paris (1783) ended the American Revolutionary War between Great Britain and the United States of America had been signed in 1783 King George III. recognised the former colonies as sovereign states, thus rescinding the British claim to North America and losing all colonies up to the Mississippi.
George Washington, who had previously been the chairman of the Continental Congress, became the first President of the United States of America.