• Leo TrotzkiLeo Trotzki
  • Josef StalinJosef Stalin
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Quellenverweise

Bolshevism

Lenin and the Bolsheviks advocated the tenets of Karl MarxcustomKarl Marx was a German philosopher and revolutionary socialist , according to which the workforce should seize power in an industrialised nation. As Russia in 1917 was still largely a an agrarian state and industrially underdeveloped Lenin hoped for the socialistic revolution to spread all over Europe. In fact the revolution remained confined to Russia. The workforce was a minority so instead of their reign dictatorship followed.

Fortification of power

After obtaining a mere 25% of all votes in the elections for the National Assembly the Bolsheviks dissipated the Assembly by armed force in 1918. Forbidding oppositional parties paved the way for a one-party rule. In the subsequent time a broad mass of resistance members united in the so called “White oppositioncustomThe White movement was a confederation of Anti-Communist forces that fought the Bolsheviks after the Russian Revolution 1917” in order to overthrow the Bolsheviks. However the Bolsheviks won with the support of the Red ArmycustomThe Red Army was the army of the Soviet Union from 1922 until its dissolution 1991. The economic situation remained dreadful. From 1918 until 1921 the government reigned by war communismcustomWar communism was the economic and political system that existed in Soviet Russia during the Russian Civil War, from 1918 to 1921, wages were paid in kind as money lost its worth. After the civil war between the white opposition and the Bolsheviks Lenin lay the foundation of a more stable economy with the “New economic policycustomThe New Economic Policy represented a more capitalism-oriented economic policy after the end of the Russian civil war in 1922”. While the government sill controlled banks, large concerns and external trade private trade became legitimate once more1.

Peace of Brest-Litowsk

With his party political program Lenin intended, among other things, to end the First World War. The negotiations culminated in the peace treaty of Brest-Litowsk that was signed in March 1918 between the Soviet Union and the European central power. By this ceasefire Lenin managed to stabilise the domestic political situation and the accession to power by the Bolsheviks, even though he accepted the loss of several regions so as not to endanger the revolution.
After Lenin’s death in 1924 Josef StalincustomJoseph Stalin was the leader of the Soviet Union from the mid-1920s until 1953. Under his rule, the concept of socialism in one country became a central tenet of Soviet society, leader of the CPSUcustomThe Communist Party of the Soviet Union was founded in 1912 by the Bolsheviks and seized power in the aftermath of the October Revolution of 1917. In was dissolved in 1991 , asserted himself over Leo Trotzki and became the new general secretary of the Soviet Union2.






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