February Revolution in France
Influential precedents of the European revolution were the revolts in France in February 1848In France the revolutionary events ended the Orleans monarchy (1830–48) and led to the creation of the French Second Republic.
The bourgeoisie had opposed their king Louis Philippe and proclaimed a new republic. Other European nations took these events as an example as they now had sufficient motivation and strength to rise up against the prevalent absolutismAbsolute monarchy is a monarchical form of government in which the monarch has absolute power among his or her people. Thus the protest for freedom and a national state rapidly transformed into radical riots all over Europe1.
Petition of Mannheim
After the February revolution in France the people’s assembly in Mannheim composed a collection of receivables on the 27th of February in 1848 directed at the Landtag of Baden. In this petition the liberal bourgeoisie made a proposal to their sovereigns to introduce democratic laws. Furthermore the Liberals claimed a new constitution including sovereignty of the people. Additionally the petition dealt with introducing freedom of press, jury courts and a new parliament. Essentially sovereigns were forced to impose social justice for all social classes2.
Riots in Prussia
The events in France spread like a flash in all small states, peasants lead revolts against the system of servitude and civil-parliamentary demonstrates demanded freedom, national unity and social justice. After the Austrian chancellor MetternichKlemens von Metternich served as the Foreign Minister of the Austrian Empire from 1809 until the liberal revolutions of 1848 forced his resignation had been overthrown, the Prussian king Friedrich Wilhelm IV. withdrew his troops. He installed liberal “March ministers” to fulfill the revolutionary claims, thereafter Wilhelm IV. announced elections for a German National Assembly according to a democratic franchise. Finally the constituent National Assembly met on the 18th of May 1848 in St. Paul’s churchBy 1849, the St. Paul's church had become the seat of the Frankfurt Parliament, the first publicly and freely-elected German legislative body in Frankfurt, the aim being to found a German national state, uniting all small states3.