Middle East Conflict
During the middle ages the Middle East was rather progressed in sciences and arts. Later on it was overrun by violent crusades and separated by the European colonial powers. As the area possessed approximately two thirds of all global oil reserves it is decisive in the future global supply with natural resources. The cultural history dates back until the ancient times. The Jewish population lived in Judaea in those days and was put und Othman reign due to the Islamic expansion. Western European colonialism and the foundation of Israel led to the Middle East conflict in the 20th century.
The First World WarWorld War I occurred between 1914 and 1918 marked a historical change in the Middle East. As the Othman Empire had formed an alliance with the Central Powers Great Britain strategically approached the bordering Arabic areas. If the Arabs launched a revolt against the Ottomans they would have been granted sovereignty as an Arabic national state. However this promise was not granted after the victory over the Ottomans. As stated in the secret Sykes-Picot-AgreementThe Sykes–Picot Agreement (1916) effectively divided the Arab provinces of the Ottoman Empire outside the Arabian peninsula into areas of future British and French control or influence France and Great Britain split the Middle East into two zones of influence. After the colonial times the Balfour-DeclarationThe Balfour Declaration was published in November 1917 realised a home for the Jewish in Palestine, as they fled from Europe due to growing anti-Semitism1.
Foundation of Israel
With the military support of the USA during the First World War the British government assured the World Zionist Organisation to grant the European Jews space in Palestine. Oil and other economical factors were of importance as well. After the Second World WarThe Second World War occurred between 1938 and 1945 the British occupying forces retreaded from several regions in the Middle East due to costly warfare. In 1945 six sovereign states founded the Arab LeagueThe Arab League is a regional organization of Arab countries and was formed in 1945. Anti-Zionism reached new dimensions when Israel was founded by the UN partition plan in 1948.
Middle East wars
The partition of Palestine into a Jewish and an Arabian state was met with fierce resistance. The Arab League rejected the partition plan and declared war on the newly-founded Israel in 1948, the following defeat against the skilled Israelis however strengthened the Arabic independence movement. Thereupon the USA, France and Great Britain assured Israel a warrant. During the six-days-war in 1967 another pre-emptive attack on the Israeli army was led by Arab states. Israel managed to resist the attack and occupied large Arab areas that are partly still occupied today. Thereupon the Palestine Liberation OrganisationThe Palestine Liberation Organization was founded in 1964 with the purpose of creating an independent State of Palestine (PLO) gained importance as it called for terror attacks in order to fight against Israel. Their subgroup, the Black September Organisation is responsible for the hostage-taking at the Olympic Games in Munich 1972. During the intifada of 1987 Palestinians in the Israeli regions revolted2.
Oslo peace process
After Palestinians had been dispelled from Kuwait in the second gulf war and the Arabic support for the PLO stagnated Palestine’s President Jassir ArafatYasser Arafat was Chairman of the Palestine Liberation Organization sought peace negotiations with Israel. This led to the Oslo peace process in which Israel initially accepted the PLO as official representatives of the Palestinians. However these negotiations led to no considerable success as Israel’s military control over the Gaza strip and the West Jordan Land did hardly change. The next escalation of the Israeli-Palestinian conflict began in the second intifada in 2000; a peaceful conciliation thereafter receded into the distance3.