Until the outbreak of the First World WarWorld War I occurred between 1914 and 1918 Iraq was dominated by the Othman Empire and was reformed by Great Britain in 1920. The British, who had been granted a mandate over the Iraqi areas, installed the pro-british king, Faisal who was eventually overthrown by Free Officers in 1958, granting Iraq independence from the British occupation. Thereafter the nationalistic Baath-party gained influence on the Iraqi politics. In 1968 this party seized power through a coup d’état and installed Al-Bakr as president who was superseded by Sadam HusseinSadam Hussein was the President of Iraq from 1979 to 2003 in 1979.
1st & 2nd Gulf War
After his inauguration Sadam Hussein installed a dictatorship by eradicating the intraparty opposition. He aimed to achieve prevalence at the Persian Gulf. By attacking the bordering country, Iran he aimed to assume a leading economic role by conquering mineral resources. When this attempt failed the war ended in 1988.The second gulf war commenced in 1990 when the Iraqi army invaded Kuwait. Kuwait was liberated in 1991 with American support. Thereafter the Iraq had to suffer various sanctions imposed by the United Nations1.
War against terrorism
After the terror attacks of 9/11The September 11 attacks were suicide attacks in the United States in 2001. Al Qaida and Osama bin Laden were blamed for planning these attacks the Middle East became the central operating area of the USA’s foreign affairs. President George BushGeorge Bush was the President of the United States from 2001 to 2009 legitimised the attacks against several states that might have house Islamist terrorist with the slogan „war against terrorism“. In October 2001 the American troops began invading Afghanistan and closed the terror camps of the Al-Qaida who, under Bin Laden’s leadership, were considered responsible for the attacks on the World Trade Centre. After the US government accused Saddam Hussein of possessing weapons of mass destruction and maintaining connections with the Al-Kaida the military operation expanded to Iraq2.
Coalition of the willing
The war against Iraq was justified by the USA as protection against a looming assault of Iraq, using their chemical weapons. During the 1990s the USA had already used weapon inspectors. The American motivations for the war were not approved by the majority of the United Nation; evidence for the involvement of Saddam Hussein in the events of 9/11, as suspected by vice president Colin Powell, was lacking. Therefore the USA were breaching the ban of offensive war stated in international law and in consequence formed the coalition of the willingCoalition of the willing is a political phrase used to describe collective participants in military interventions that fall outside of United Nations peacekeeping operations with Great Britain. The attack on Bagdad commenced on the 20th of March 20033.
Even though the Iraq war terminated the rein of Saddam Hussein within weeks the US occupational forces did not manage to stabilise the domestic situation ever since. The desired political restart was increasingly impaired by suicide attacks and contentions between Sunnites and Shiites. Eventually the original American causes of war could not be proven: Neither did Sadam Hussein entertain contact with Al-Kaida nor did Iraq possess weapons of mass destruction.