Clash of cultures
When the USA remained as the sole global power after the ending of the Cold War in 1990/91 historians, politicians and scientist began to discuss how to define the new world order. Some advocated the opinion that the USA had the biggest claim to power in a unipolar world; others considered this the beginning of a multipolar world.
After the Soviet Union and the thus the bipolar world had come to an end Francis Fukuyama, an American political scientist published his book „the end of history“ and claimed that liberal democracy as practiced in the West was the only social order that would be persistent in the future. In 1996 Samuel P. Huntington published his answers to Fukuyamas theses in his book „The clash of Civilizations“. Therein he refuted Fukuyama’s arguments and explained that instead a clash of cultures would take place, consequently it would no longer be two countries competing but rather different cultures. The western dominance in the world was had thus prompted other cultures to act against this influence1.
According to Huntington one culture could include several languages and religions. The essential cultures are the Chinese, the Japanese, the Islamic, the Hindu and the Latin-American culture. Those did have various traditions but were agreed in the embankment of Western influence on their countries. Nonetheless Huntington pointed out that the Western culture was still dominant in the world (late 1990s). However this could change in the future as especially China was increasingly influential in international commerce and communication, thus challenging western civilisation2.