When the Soviet Union and their socialistic system collapsed several Eastern European countries abandoned their communistic systems and thus triggered a series of conflicts. Yugoslavia was especially affected by the end of the Cold warThe Cold War was a state of political and military tension after World War II between the USA and the Soviet Union as it had been a multiethnic state and housed people from several different religious and national backgrounds. Consequently uprisings took place in the autonomous republics Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Montenegro, Macedonia and Kosovo. Serbia aimed for the great Serbian solution and tried to avert the separation of Yugoslavia by force as all Serbian inhabitants would have lost their home.
In answer to the independence movements the Yugoslav people’s army interceded in Slovenia in the 10-Days-WarThe 10-Days-War was a civil war in Yugoslavia that followed the Slovenian declaration of independence on 25 June 1991. After Slovenia had declared its political independence in 1992 the Yugoslav forces invaded Slovenia. In then end the Slovene „Teritorialna Obramba“managed to assert itself against the JNAYugoslav People's Army and thus finalised the independence of Slovenia. After the intrusion of the United NationsThe United Nations is an intergovernmental organization established in 1945 to promote international co-operation the Yugoslav troops retreated after ten days, followed by an official ceasefire1.
Croatia & Bosnia-Herzegovina
When Croatia declared its detachment from Yugoslavia in May 1991 a new conflict arose after the 10-Day-War. The Serbians protested against the independence as they feared the deprivation of their legitimacy as a sovereign folk. After Bosnia-Herzegovina had declared its independence in December 1991 the political debate developed into a long-time war. Initially Serbian freedom fighters occupied several regions of Croatia, that could however be reclaimed later on. It was the Serbian goal to link the occupied regions to the rest of Yugoslavia in order to preserve the Serbian status according to international lawInternational law is the set of rules generally regarded and accepted as binding in relations between states and between nations. In June 1992 protection forces of the United Nations were sent into the crisis areas. Several genocides and war crimes took place. When the NATOThe North Atlantic Treaty Organization constitutes a system of collective defence whereby its member states agree to mutual defense in response to an attack by any external party reinforced their airstrikes on the Serbian militia, the Serbian administration accepted the peace negations that were eventually concluded in December 19952.
Between 1998 and 1999 radical independence aspirations surfaced in the Serbian province Kosovo. Approximately 80% of the population were of Albanian descent. After Kosovo’s liberation army had one third of the province under its control the Serbian army began to operate. The Kosovo Conference in RambouilletThe Rambouillet Agreement (1999) was a proposed peace agreement between the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia and a delegation representing the Albanian majority population of Kosovo was supposed to restore the peace between Yugoslavia and Kosovo. After Yugoslavia had declined the treaty the NATO launched several airstrikes against Serbian military stations. In June 1999 the Serbians accepted the peace treaty of the United Nations and withdrew its troops from Kosovo that was thereafter controlled by UN-troops. In February 2008 Kosovo declared its independence.