The term industrialisation signifies the transition from manufacture to a factory system. It was the beginning of modern economy in the 19th century. In the second half of the 19th century, the high time of industrialisation, mechanical facilities replaced human handicraft, increasing the gross national product considerably. However this reformation had a downside just as well: as handicraft had been surpassed by new machinery many workers lost their jobs. The unemployment rate rose drastically.
First industrial revolution
The first industrial revolution, emanating from Great Britain in the 18th century marked the first worldwide change from an agricultural to an industrial country. The drastic changes in economy were put on a level with the reformations made in the French revolution. The United Kingdom managed to profit from those changes first as it had not been involved in any war for many years, could import many resources from their colonies and lead a free trading system. The most important inventions were the spinning frame, the mechanic weaving loom and the steam engine, as well as the new possibilities for coal mining1.
High time in Germany
The second phase of industrial revolution began immediately after the foundation of the German Reich in the 1870s. It quickly led to an improvement of infrastructure and weapon production. Germany increasingly assumed the form of an imperial major power2. The economic boom and medical improvements lead to an increased urbanisation and growth of cities. Numerous citizens moved from the countryside into big cities and thereby caused a population boom. The imperialistic strategy of the economically strengthened Germany led to a global conflict with other European powers around the end of the 19th century, finally culminating in the First World War 19143.