First World War
The First World War is also known as “the modern war”.
The industrial revolution in the 19th century renovated weapons and rendered it possible to conduct war over increased distances. France, Russia, Austria-Hungary, Great Britain and the German empire were involved directly in war-related events.
The war had disastrous impacts on the consequent world order. Russia reformed into a communistic system of power after the October Revolution 1917The October Revolution 1917 in Russia was led by the Bolsheviks who established a communist state and the longstanding monarchies in Germany, Austria-Hungary and the Othman Empire ruptured.
Bismarck as an „honest broker“
The Balkan crisisThe Balkan wars took place between 1912 and 1913 was of essential relevance for the First World War. At the end of the 19th century many folks claimed independence from the Othman EmpireThe Ottoman Empire was an empire founded by Oghuz Turks under Osman Bey in north-western Anatolia in 1299. Russia encouraged those movements for freedom and thus got into a conflict with Austria. BismarckOtto von Bismarck served as Minister president of Prussia since 1862 and formed the German Empire with himself as Chancellor in 1871 saw himself as mediator and “honest broker”, wanting to soothe the tension between Russia and Austria-Hungary at a meeting. However Russia lost the debate concerning the Balkan at the Berlin congress in 1878Aim of the Congress of Berlin (1878) was to reorganize the countries of the Balkans, leading to increased political polarisation. Especially the Serbs pursued independence and wanted to break loose from Austria-HungaryAustria-Hungary existed from 1867 to 1918 and was a multinational realm. Like many other folks they wanted to found their own national state, Austria however ignored those claims and kept the Balkan under its prevalence1.
Assassination in Sarajevo
An important factor for the outbreak of war was the murder of the Austrian heir to the throne, Franz Ferdinand, by the Serbian assassin Gavrillo Princip on the 18th of June 1914. This aggravated the already operant international conflicts. The German empire was threatened from two fronts at that time: in the “triple ententeThe Triple Entente was the alliance linking the Russian Empire, the French Third Republic, and the United Kingdom, created in 1907 ” Great Britain and France in the west and Russia in the east had joined forces, thus encircling the German empire. In the Triple AllianceThe Triple Alliance was the military alliance among Germany, Austria–Hungary, and Italy, created in 1882 Austria and Italy allied with the German empire until Italy backed out in 1915. The lack of the third ally in this alliance entailed a geopolitically fatal course of war2.