Phase of detente
The Moscow-Washington hotline, installed immediately after the Cuban missile crisis in 1962 had already ameliorated the relation between the USA and the Soviet Union, as it allowed for emergency talks held globally. During this phase of détente first disarmament negotiations were being held. In 1968 Great Britain, the USA and the Soviet Union agreed on the disarmament of several nuclear weapons and the omission of nuclear tests in the “nuclear nonproliferation treatyThe Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons is an international treaty whose objective is to prevent the spread of nuclear weapons and weapons technology”.
New Eastern policy
During the 1970s the USA and the Soviet Union found new ways to improve their political, military and economic cooperation. Especially the social-liberal coalition in Germany led by Willy BrandtWilly Brandt was the Chancellor of West Germany from 1969 to 1974 was crucial for amending international relations. The East-West division within Germany had made Berlin a symbol for the worldwide East-West conflict. The FRG had abandoned its demand on the GDR in the basic treaty and accepted the inner German border. An important decision within the so called “Ostverträge” was the four-power agreementThe Four Power Agreement on Berlin was agreed 1972 by the four wartime allied powers. It improved travel and communications between the two parts of the city made in Berlin in 1972 in which the victorious powers of the Second World War resolved the conflict concerning the claim to representation over Berlin. Thereafter the living conditions in Berlin could be improved and the transit routes between East and West sorted. Simultaneously the travel rights were loosened1.
On the CSCECommission on Security and Cooperation in Europe (CSCE) several European states discussed the inviolableness of the borders, the retention of civil and human rights and the non-intervention of foreign states in domestic affairs. Apart from the political resolutions the countries managed to amend the economic relationships between East and West. This led to the CSCE final actThe Helsinki Final Act 1975 was signed in an attempt to improve relations between the Communist bloc and the West passed in Helsinki in 1975. The west states made it a priority to improve the living conditions in the East, as it was commonly known that their freedoms were impaired by espionage and governmental spies.
Despite all contracts and reforms humane improvements in the East were not realised. The GDR did not meet the resolutions passed previously as their main aim was the international recognition as a state according to international law2.